Learning Disabilities

The term “learning disabilities” is an umbrella term that covers a range of neurologically based disorders in learning and various degrees of severity of such disorders. Predecessor terms include: minimal brain damage and minimal brain dysfunction.

Broadly speaking, these disorders involve difficulty in one or more, but not uniformly in all, basic psychological processes: (1) input (auditory and visual perception), (2) integration (sequencing, abstraction, and organization), (3) memory (working, short term, and long term memory), (4) output (expressive language), and (5) motor (fine and gross motor).

Type of learning disabilities vary from individual to individual and may present in a variety of ways. Learning disabilities may manifest as difficulty: (1) processing information by visual and auditory, means, which may impact upon reading, spelling, writing, and understanding or using language, (2) prioritizing, organizing, doing mathematics, and following instructions, (3) storing or retrieving information from short or long term memory, (4) using spoken language, and (5) clumsiness or difficulty with handwriting.

Learning disabilities are not emotional disturbances, intellectual disabilities, or sensory impairments. They are not caused by inadequate parenting or lack of educational opportunity.

Cognitive assessment, including psychoeducational or neuropsychological evaluation, is of critical importance in diagnosing a learning disability. Children’s Learning disabilities may be diagnosed by qualified school or educational psychologists, by clinical psychologists, and by clinical neuropsychologists who are trained and experienced in the assessment of learning disabilities. If you are struggling with symptoms that may indicate you or a loved one may have a learning disability, find professional support as soon as possible.

Source : IDamerica.org

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Learning Disabilities:

Learning disabilities are neurologically-based processing problems that can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing, or math. They can also interfere with higher-level skills such as organization, time planning, and abstract reasoning. Common learning disabilities include dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.

The exact cause of learning disabilities is not known, but they are believed to occur due to differences in the way the brain processes information. They are often hereditary and run in families. Other factors that might contribute include premature birth, low birth weight, and exposure to substances like alcohol and tobacco in the womb.

The three most common types of learning disabilities are:

    1. Dyslexia: Affects reading and related language-based processing skills.
    2. Dyscalculia: Affects a person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts.
    3. Dysgraphia: Affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills.

Learning disabilities cannot be “cured” as they are due to differences in brain processing. However, with appropriate support and intervention, individuals with learning disabilities can achieve success in school and in life. Strategies often involve specific educational approaches and techniques, including individualized instruction, the use of technology, and supportive counseling.