Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is characterized by persistent and excessive worry about a number of different things. People with GAD may anticipate disaster and may be overly concerned about money, health, family, work, or other issues. Individuals with GAD find it difficult to control their worry. They may worry more than seems warranted about actual events or may expect the worst even when there is no apparent reason for concern.
GAD is diagnosed when a person finds it difficult to control worry on more days than not for at least six months and has three or more symptoms. This differentiates GAD from worry that may be specific to a set stressor or for a more limited period of time.
GAD affects 6.8 million adults, or 3.1% of the U.S. population, in any given year. Women are twice as likely to be affected. The disorder comes on gradually and can begin across the life cycle, though the risk is highest between childhood and middle age. Although the exact cause of GAD is unknown, there is evidence that biological factors, family background, and life experiences, particularly stressful ones, play a role.
Sometimes just the thought of getting through the day produces anxiety. People with GAD don’t know how to stop the worry cycle and feel it is beyond their control, even though they usually realize that their anxiety is more intense than the situation warrants. All anxiety disorders may relate to a difficulty tolerating uncertainty and therefore many people with GAD try to plan or control situations. Many people believe worry prevents bad things from happening, so they view it as risky to give up worry. At times, people can struggle with physical symptoms such as stomachaches and headaches.
When their anxiety level is mild to moderate, GAD treatment helps people function socially, have full and meaningful lives, and be gainfully employed. Many with GAD may avoid situations because they have the disorder or they may not take advantage of opportunities due to their worry (social situations, travel, promotions, etc). Some people can have difficulty carrying out the simplest daily activities when their anxiety is severe.
Signs and Symptoms of GAD
Therapy for adults and children suffering from anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and depression are treated with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), considered the “Blue Ribbon” intervention for these illnesses.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a mental health disorder characterized by persistent and excessive worry about a number of different things. People with GAD may anticipate disaster and may be overly concerned about money, health, family, work, or other issues. The worry is often out of proportion to the actual circumstance.
GAD is diagnosed by a healthcare provider using criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This includes excessive anxiety or worry most days for at least 6 months, difficulty controlling the worry, and the presence of at least three physical or cognitive symptoms (such as restlessness, fatigue, or difficulty concentrating).
While there is no “cure” for GAD, it can be managed effectively with a combination of therapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy), medication, and lifestyle changes.
GAD can be considered a disability if it significantly interferes with a person’s daily activities and ability to function. In some cases, individuals may qualify for disability benefits if their GAD is severe. However, many people with GAD can manage their symptoms and lead full, productive lives with appropriate treatment and support.