Panic Attacks:

Panic attacks typically last for several minutes, though they can feel like they go on forever. They are usually most intense for about 10 minutes. Some symptoms may last for a longer time, but the intense feeling of the attack tends to subside after about 10 to 20 minutes.
While it may not be possible to completely eliminate panic attacks forever, treatment strategies such as cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes can significantly reduce their frequency and severity. It’s important to seek professional help to manage panic attacks effectively.
Techniques to manage nighttime panic attacks can include maintaining a regular sleep schedule, practicing good sleep hygiene, using relaxation techniques before bed, and seeking therapy to manage underlying stress or anxiety. Medication may also be recommended by a healthcare provider.
During a panic attack, it can help to practice deep breathing, ground yourself by focusing on your surroundings, and remind yourself that the panic attack will pass. However, these are only immediate coping mechanisms. Long-term management typically requires therapy, lifestyle adjustments, and sometimes medication.session. Longer family or couples sessions are priced proportionately.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD):

The exact cause of OCD isn’t known. It’s likely a combination of genetic, neurobiological, behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors. Some people may have a predisposition towards developing OCD, which is then triggered by a stressful life event.
  1. OCD can manifest in various ways, but four common categories of OCD symptoms include:
    • Contamination Obsessions with Cleaning Compulsions: Fear of contamination leads to excessive cleaning or washing.
    • Harm Obsessions with Checking Compulsions: Fear of causing harm, often leading to compulsive checking behaviors to prevent perceived disasters.
    • Symmetry Obsessions with Ordering/Arranging Compulsions: Need for symmetry or exactness, leading to compulsive arranging or ordering behaviors.
    • Unwanted Forbidden or Taboo Thoughts: Obsessions involving unwanted and distressing thoughts around themes like aggression, religion, or sexuality, often leading to mental rituals to cope with these thoughts.
OCD is typically treated with a combination of medication and cognitive behavioral therapy, specifically a technique called Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP). In severe cases, other treatment options may be explored, such as intensive outpatient and residential programs or even neurosurgery for mental illness.
Overcoming OCD usually involves cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), specifically exposure and response prevention (ERP), and sometimes medication. This process involves gradually facing feared thoughts and situations while refraining from engaging in compulsions. Self-care practices like regular exercise, a healthy diet, adequate sleep, and stress management can also be beneficial. It’s crucial to work with a mental health professional to develop an effective treatment plan.


If someone you know is dealing with depression, it’s important to provide emotional support, encourage them to seek professional help, be patient, and help them with daily tasks. It’s also crucial to take care of your own mental health during this time
Dealing with depression often involves a combination of therapy, medication, lifestyle changes, and social support. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Interpersonal Therapy (IPT), and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) are common forms of therapy used Antidepressants may be prescribed by a healthcare provider. Regular exercise, a healthy diet, adequate sleep, and reducing alcohol intake can also help manage symptoms.
Depression can feel different for everyone. Common feelings include persistent sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness, loss of interest in activities once enjoyed, fatigue, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, and sometimes thoughts of death or suicide. It can also cause physical symptoms like changes in appetite or sleep habits.
Overcoming depression often requires professional help, including psychotherapy and possibly medication. Lifestyle changes like regular physical activity, a healthy diet, sufficient sleep, reducing alcohol intake, and staying connected with others can also be helpful. It’s important to reach out to healthcare providers for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.


Emetophobia is an intense fear of vomiting. This can include fear of the act of vomiting, seeing others vomit, or feeling nauseous. It’s a specific phobia that can significantly impact a person’s daily life and routines.
Overcoming emetophobia usually involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals change their negative thought patterns and behaviors. Exposure therapy, a form of CBT, may also be helpful. It gradually exposes the person to situations related to their fear to help them manage their anxiety. Medication may be used in some cases.
The exact cause of emetophobia is unknown. Like other phobias, it may result from a combination of genetic factors, brain chemistry, and life experiences (such as a traumatic event related to vomiting).
Similar to the answer on how to get over emetophobia, treatment typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), specifically exposure therapy, and sometimes medication. Self-help strategies can also be beneficial, including relaxation techniques, mindfulness, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. It’s recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.


ADHD is characterized by symptoms such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning or development. If you’re experiencing these symptoms and they’re causing significant issues in multiple areas of your life (such as work, school, or relationships), it might be a good idea to seek a professional evaluation. Remember, only a qualified healthcare provider can diagnose ADHD.
ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) is an older term used to describe a type of ADHD characterized predominantly by inattentiveness without the hyperactivity. Nowadays, the official term is ADHD, which is divided into three types: predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive type, and combined type.
Getting an ADHD diagnosis typically involves a comprehensive evaluation by a mental health professional. This evaluation can include a clinical interview, observations, and input from significant others (like parents or teachers for children). Neuropsychological testing might also be part of the process.
Strategies to improve focus with ADHD can include breaking tasks into smaller parts, using tools to help with organization (like calendars and lists), incorporating physical activity into your routine, creating a quiet and clutter-free workspace, and taking regular breaks. Behavioral therapy and medication can also be effective. It’s recommended to work with a healthcare provider to determine the best strategies for you.

Asperger's Syndrome:

Asperger’s syndrome, also known as Asperger disorder or simply Asperger’s, is a type of pervasive developmental disorder which is classified as a part of the autism spectrum. The main distinguishing features of Asperger’s are difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, alongside restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.
The main difference between Asperger’s syndrome and autism lies in language development. Individuals with Asperger’s syndrome, unlike those with autism, typically do not have a significant delay in language development. However, both share difficulties with social interactions and communication, and exhibit repetitive behaviors or narrow interests. It’sworth noting that as of the DSM-5, Asperger’s syndrome is now included within the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
Yes, Asperger’s syndrome is considered a part of the broader category of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition (DSM-5).
The exact cause of Asperger’s syndrome is not known. However, it’s likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no evidence to support the idea that Asperger’s is caused by a person’s upbringing or their social or physical environment.

Learning Disabilities:

Learning disabilities are neurologically-based processing problems that can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing, or math. They can also interfere with higher-level skills such as organization, time planning, and abstract reasoning. Common learning disabilities include dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.
The exact cause of learning disabilities is not known, but they are believed to occur due to differences in the way the brain processes information. They are often hereditary and run in families. Other factors that might contribute include premature birth, low birth weight, and exposure to substances like alcohol and tobacco in the womb.
  1. The three most common types of learning disabilities are:
    1. Dyslexia: Affects reading and related language-based processing skills.
    2. Dyscalculia: Affects a person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts.
    3. Dysgraphia: Affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills.
Learning disabilities cannot be “cured” as they are due to differences in brain processing. However, with appropriate support and intervention, individuals with learning disabilities can achieve success in school and in life. Strategies often involve specific educational approaches and techniques, including individualized instruction, the use of technology, and supportive counseling.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD):

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a mental health disorder characterized by persistent and excessive worry about a number of different things. People with GAD may anticipate disaster and may be overly concerned about money, health, family, work, or other issues. The worry is often out of proportion to the actual circumstance.
GAD is diagnosed by a healthcare provider using criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This includes excessive anxiety or worry most days for at least 6 months, difficulty controlling the worry, and the presence of at least three physical or cognitive symptoms (such as restlessness, fatigue, or difficulty concentrating).
While there is no “cure” for GAD, it can be managed effectively with a combination of therapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy), medication, and lifestyle changes.
GAD can be considered a disability if it significantly interferes with a person’s daily activities and ability to function. In some cases, individuals may qualify for disability benefits if their GAD is severe. However, many people with GAD can manage their symptoms and lead full, productive lives with appropriate treatment and support.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT):

An example of CBT could be a person working with a therapist to change negative thought patterns. For instance, if a person often thinks, “I’m terrible at everything,” a CBT therapist might help them challenge this belief and replace it with a more balanced thought like, “I struggle with some things, but I’m good at others.”
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy that helps individuals understand and change thought patterns that lead to harmful actions or negative feelings. It’s based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected, and changing our thoughts can help us change our behaviors and emotions.
CBT helps individuals with depression learn to identify and change negative thought patterns that lead to depressive symptoms. By developing more balanced and positive ways of thinking, individuals can decrease their depressive symptoms and improve their mood.
Yes, CBT is considered effective for a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It’s considered a first-line treatment for many of these conditions. Effectiveness can depend on factors such as the individual’s commitment to the process and the skill of the therapist.

Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT):

Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) is a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Its main goals are to teach people how to live in the moment, develop healthy ways to cope with stress, regulate their emotions, and improve their relationships with others.
Yes, DBT has been found to be effective for a variety of mental health conditions, particularly borderline personality disorder. It can also be helpful for individuals with other types of personality disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, and those who struggle with self-harm behaviors.
DBT techniques include skills training in four key areas: mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, andinterpersonal effectiveness. Mindfulness focuses on improving an individual’s ability to accept and be present in the current moment. Distress tolerance is geared toward increasing a person’s tolerance of negative emotion. Emotion regulation covers strategies to manage and change intense emotions. Interpersonal effectiveness consists of techniques that allow a person to communicate with others in a way that is assertive, maintains self-respect, and strengthens relationships.
DBT was originally developed to treat borderline personality disorder. However, it’s now used for the treatment of other mental health disorders that involve emotion regulation difficulties, such as bipolar disorder, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).


Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a type of psychotherapy that was originally designed to alleviate distress associated with traumatic memories. During EMDR therapy, the client attends to emotionally disturbing material in brief sequential doses while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus (like lateral eye movements, hand tapping, or auditory tones).
EMDR stands for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing.
While the exact mechanisms of EMDR are not fully understood, it’s believed to facilitate the accessing and processing of traumatic memories to bring these to an adaptive resolution. The eye movements or other bilateral stimulation are thought to help the brain process the memories and reduce their emotional intensity
EMDR has been considered controversial for several reasons. Some critics question whether the eye movements in EMDR are necessary, as some research has suggested that the therapy might be just as effective without them. Others argue that EMDR lacks a solid theoretical foundation. However, despite these controversies, EMDR has been found to be effective for treating PTSD in numerous clinical trials and is recognized as an effective treatment by multiple professional organizations.


Biofeedback therapy is a technique you can use to learn to control your body’s functions, such as your heart rate. It involves connecting sensors or electrodes to your body and displaying the biofeedback on a screen in real time. With practice, you can learn to change your physiological activity to improve health, performance, and the physiological changes that often accompany stress and illness.
There are several types of biofeedback methods, including Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Biofeedback, Neurofeedback (brainwave biofeedback), Electrodermal Activity (EDA) Biofeedback, and Electromyography (EMG) Biofeedback. The method used depends on the individual’s specific needs and the goals of treatment.
Biofeedback helps reduce stress by teaching individuals to recognize and make voluntary changes to physiological activity that may be associated with stress. This may include lowering heart rate, reducing muscle tension, or changing patterns of brain activity.
Biofeedback is generally considered safe, with no known adverse side effects. However, because it involves focusing on changing physiological activity, it may not be suitable for everyone. Individuals with certain medical conditions should consult with a healthcare provider before starting biofeedback therapy.

Internal Family Systems (IFS):

An example of an internal family system might be someone identifying a part of themselves that’s always trying to please others (a “pleaser” part), a part that gets angry when it feels neglected (an “angry” part), and a part that tries to keep peace among all the other parts (a “peacekeeper” part). In IFS therapy, the individual would work with the therapist to understand and heal the relationships among these parts.
IFS identifies three types of parts: exiles, managers, and firefighters. Exiles carry the traumas and painful emotions from the past. Managers try to keep control of the system and protect the individual from feeling the pain carried by the exiles. Firefighters act out (through behaviors like addiction, overeating, or aggression) to distract from the pain when exiles threaten to break out.
The length of IFS therapy can vary widely depending on the individual’s needs and goals. Some people may find improvement within a few months, while others may engage in IFS therapy for a year or more.
IFS therapy can be beneficial for individuals dealing with a variety of mental health conditions, including trauma and PTSD, anxiety, depression, and eating disorders. It can also be helpful for anyone seeking to better understand themselves and improve their inner peace and self-confidence.

Family Therapy:

Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. It’s usually provided by a psychologist, clinical social worker or licensed therapist.
Family therapy is best for families who are experiencing a problem that affects one or more family members, such as mental health conditions (like depression, substance abuse, or eating disorders), significant stress or conflict among family members, or changes in the family structure (like divorce or blended families).
The goals of family therapy can vary based on the specific family andtheir needs, but generally they may include improving communication among family members, resolving conflicts, and improving the functioning of the family unit.
Four advantages of family therapy might be: 1) It can help improve communication among family members, 2) It can provide support and understanding during a difficult family situation, 3) It can help family members understand and cope with a loved one’s mental health condition, and 4) It can help improve the overall functioning and happiness of the family.

Couples Therapy:

Couples therapy, also known as marriage counseling, is a type of psychotherapy that helps couples of all types recognize and resolve conflicts and improve their relationships.
In couples therapy, the couple works with a therapist to identify conflicts and communication issues in the relationship. The therapist may provide exercises and activities for the couple to work on both in sessions and at home, with the goal of improving the relationship and resolving conflicts.
The effectiveness of couples therapy can depend on many factors, including the specific issues the couple is facing, their willingness to make changes, and the skill of the therapist. However, one widely recognized and effective method is Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT), which focuses on the emotional bond between partners
The main goal of couples therapy is to improve the relationship between the partners. This may involve improving communication, resolving conflicts, increasing understanding and empathy, and strengthening the emotional bond between the partners.

Individual Therapy:

Individual therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The effectiveness can vary depending on the individual, the specific mental health condition, and the type of therapy used.
Individual therapy is a form of therapy in which the client works one-on-one with a trained therapist. There are many types of individual therapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, and others.
The role of individual therapy is to help individuals understand and resolve their personal and psychological issues. This can involve helping the individual understand their feelings, thoughts, and behaviors, developing coping strategies and problem-solving skills, and working towards personal goals.
The process of individual therapy typically involves an initial assessment, followed by a series of regular therapy sessions. During the sessions, the therapist will use various therapeutic techniques to help the individual understand and manage their issues. The length and frequency of therapy can vary depending on the individual’s needs and goals.

Workshops and Trainings:

Social skills training is a form of behavior therapy used to improve social skills in people with mental disorders or developmental disorders. It often involves role-playing exercises where the individual practices and improves specific skills, such as starting a conversation, making eye contact, or responding to social cues.
Social skills training can be helpful for individuals who struggle with social interactions due to conditions like autism, ADHD, anxiety disorders, or other mental health conditions. Improving social skills can help these individuals have more positive and successful social interactions, which can improve their quality of life and mental health.
The purpose of a workshop is to provide intensive discussion and activity on a specific subject. Workshops are often interactive and practical, allowing participants to engage in hands-on activities and learn new skills or techniques.
Conducting an educational workshop typically involves several steps, including identifying the goals of the workshop, planning the content and activities, preparing the materials, facilitating the workshop, and providing follow-up or evaluation after the workshop. The specific steps can vary depending on the topic and goals of the workshop.

Social Sense:

Social therapy is a therapeutic approach that focuses on the social aspects of individuals’ lives. It helps individuals improve their social skills, build healthier relationships, and better navigate social situations. It can be particularly helpful for individuals with social anxiety, autism, or other conditions that affect social interactions.
An example of social therapy might be a group therapy session where individuals practice social skills with each other under the guidance of a therapist. The therapist might facilitate role-playing exercises, group discussions, or other activities to help individuals improve their social interactions.
Improving social skills often involves practice and learning. This can involve learning about social cues and norms, practicing communication and conversation skills, and receiving feedback and guidance from a therapist or coach. It can also involve exposure to social situations in a safe and supportive environment.
Social skills can generally be categorized into two types: interpersonal skills and communication skills. Interpersonal skills involve the ability to interact positively with others,such as showing empathy, managing conflicts, and cooperating with others. Communication skills involve the ability to effectively convey and receive information, such as listening actively, expressing oneself clearly, and understanding non-verbal cues.